Stonefly
( Plecoptera )


2009-0516-49064901-PLE00019-Plecoptera[1637h43s,L,A,laterum]{EXD}-G.jpg

PHOTO COMMENT

IDENTIFICATION
Identification:Plecoptera
(Burmeister, 1839)
Common Name:Stonefly
Life Stage:(A) adult

PHYLOGENY

Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Superorder:Polyneoptera
Order:Plecoptera
Taxon Code:PLE00019
ITIS/TSN:102467

LOCATION DETAILS
Location Name
BSA Camp Royaneh, BSA Camp Royaneh, 4600 Scanlon Rd., Cazadero
County:Sonoma County
ECI Site#:CA49064901

RECOGNITION
Body Length
4-5, or 40-50 mm.
Similar Taxa
Slender, usually brownish insects that may have wings (males) or be wingless (some males and all females); body of male flattened; body of female and immature more cylindrical; tarsi 3-segmented; basal segment of front tarsus greatly enlarged for producing silk from hollow hairs issuing on the basal and middle segments; cerci 2-segmented (but left cercus of some males 1-segmented). Females of Embiidina (formerly Embioptera) are notoriously difficult to identify since they lack wings or full development of other normal adult features. They sort of all look pretty similar.

BIOLOGY
They require moving water for development of the nymphs, and for that reason the adults are usually found near streams. There is a marked seasonal succession in the emergence of stoneflies, particularly in the northern hemisphere; adult stoneflies can be collected every month of the year in California if the proper locality is visited.
Food
Either vegetarian or carnivorous, depending upon the suborder.
Habitat
Stoneflies require a habitat with cool, welloxygenated water. The temperature of the water controls development and emergence; streams with marked temperature changes during the seasons usually display a distinctive sequence of emergence of various species. Some stoneflies occur only in large streams; some are found solely in small streams; still others frequent a wide range of stream sizes.
Importance
Plecoptera are intolerant of water pollution and presence of the order in aquatic systems is an indicator that aquatic ecosystems may be healthy.
Distribution
worldwide
Importance
Plecoptera are intolerant of water pollution and presence of the order in aquatic systems is an indicator that aquatic ecosystems may be healthy.
Development
Eggs: Females may deposit eggs over water while flying. Some species crawl to the water edge to deposit eggs. Eggs may be laid once or several times a year. Numbers of eggs is known to exceed 1,000. Eggs are generally spherical with a sticky coating which, when moistened, allows them to adhere to the substrate. Nymphs: In California, nymphs are not well known, but those in the midwest are. They occur in waters with a gravel bottom, but some species are found where the substrate is chiefly detritus.

CREDITS
Photographer
Eddie Dunbar
Insect Sciences Museum of California

References
Order Plecoptera - Stoneflies. (http://bugguide.net/node/view/76). Accessed March 12, 2016. .
ITIS.
Plecoptera (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plecoptera)
Bulletin of the California Insect Survey. Volume 6, No. 6. The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of California. Stanley G. Jewett, Jr. (U.S. Bureau of Commercia1 Fisheries, Portland, Oregon). University of California Press. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1960.


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