Common Buckeye
( Junonia coenia )


2014-0513-01100108-LEP00320-Junonia_coenia[0959h47s,F,A,basking]{BWurzburg}-G.jpg

PHOTO COMMENT
Its peacock-like eyespots distinguish it from other local butterflies. Two eyespots (one large and one small) appear on the hindwings; the forewings have just one. Eyespots may be used to startle predators, such as small birds. Males patrol low lying vegetation mixed with open area.

IDENTIFICATION
Identification:Junonia coenia
(Hübner ,1822 )
Common Name:Common Buckeye
Life Stage:(A) adult

PHYLOGENY

Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Insecta
Superorder:Holometabola
Order:Lepidoptera
Family:Nymphalidae
Subfamily:Nymphalinae
Tribe:Junoniini
Genus:Junonia
Taxon Code:LEP00320
ITIS/TSN:778049

LOCATION DETAILS
Location Name
Knowland Park, Knowland Park, Oakland
County:Alameda County
ECI Site#:CA01100108

RECOGNITION
Description
Adult - Upperside is brown. Forewing with 2 orange cell bars and 2 eyespots; part of white subapical band appears in the largest, lower eyespot. Hindwing has 2 eyespots; upper one is largest and contains a magenta crescent. Underside of hindwing is brown or tan in the wet season (summer) form and rose-red in the dry season (fall) form. Larva - Caterpillar is highly variable in color, but usually "mostly black above and white and/or orange along sides with metallic blue-black dorsal spines. Spines along sides arise from orange wart-like bases. Head orange above with black bordering frons;short black scolus over each lobe...heavily salted with white tubercles".
Wingspan
39-68 mm.
Body Length
Larva: Up to 45 mm.

BIOLOGY
Host
Adult food: Favorite nectar sources are composites including aster, chickory, gumweed, knapweed, and tickseed sunflower. Dogbane, peppermint, and other flowers are also visited. Larva: Plants from the snapdragon family including snapdragon (Antirrhinum), toadflax (Linaria), and Gerardia; the plantain family including plantains (Plantago); and the acanthus family including ruellia (Ruellia nodiflora).
Habitat
Adult: Open, sunny areas with low vegetation and some bare ground.
Range
Resident in the southern United States and north along the coasts to central California and North Carolina; south to Bermuda, Cuba, Isle of Pines, and southern Mexico. Adults from the south's first brood migrate north in late spring and summer to temporarily colonize most of the United States and parts of southern Canada.
Active Period
In California there are 2 or 3 broods from May-October.
Development
Females lay eggs singly on leaf buds or on upperside of host plant leaves.

CREDITS
Photographer
Beth Wurzburg

References
Species Junonia coenia - Common Buckeye. (bugguide.net/node/view/516). Accessed July 16, 2016. .
ITIS.


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