Tylobolus Millipede
( Tylobolus sp. )


2013-0309-01100108-DPA00065-Tylobolus_sp[1249h39s,F,A,plant-flower]{BWurzburg}-G.jpg

PHOTO COMMENT

IDENTIFICATION
Identification:Tylobolus sp.
(Cook ,1904 )
Common Name:Tylobolus Millipede
Life Stage:(A) adult

PHYLOGENY

Phylum:Arthropoda
Class:Diplopoda
Order:Spirobolida
Family:Spirobolidae
Genus:Tylobolus
Taxon Code:DPA00065
ITIS/TSN:569121

LOCATION DETAILS
Location Name
Knowland Park, Knowland Park, Oakland
County:Alameda County
ECI Site#:CA01100108

RECOGNITION
Description
Relatively large, cylindrical millipedes with 40-54 body rings. The body rings are mostly smooth or with a very fine texture. The two eyes, each composed of 27-50 ocelli in a patch or ""ocular field"", are widely separated, with more than twice the width of a patch between them. Females are larger than males. Male gonopods are normally concealed within a pouch.
Body Length
36-92 mm.
Diversity
7 Species in western North America.
Similar Taxa
Range overlaps with Hiltonius from Kern County, CA to Baja. Tylobolus differs from Hiltonius by having more ocelli per eye (27-50), a larger and hooked process on the coxa of the third legs in males, and sharper corners of the mandibular stipes. May be mistaken in photos for Narceus, a species complex widespread in eastern North America, but the two genera do not overlap.

BIOLOGY
Food
Decaying plant matter.
Habitat
Millipedes live under rocks, rotting logs and other ground debris.
Importance
Millipedes are relatively harmless. To avoid being eaten they coil into a protective spiral or may emit a foul-smelling, poisonous fluid which is irritating to the eyes. Poisons of some millipedes contain cyanide.
Range
T. castaneus (Chamberlin, 1918). Range: The San Francisco Bay Area to Santa Cruz County, California, east to the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada. T. deses (Cook, 1904). Range: Sonoma County to Sacramento County, South to Santa Cruz and Merced County.
Diversity
7 Species in western North America.
Development
As millipedes molt they add segments and legs. Each leg-bearing body segment has 2 pairs of legs, except for the first 3 body segments, which have just one.

CREDITS
Photographer
Beth Wurzburg

References
Genus Tylobolus. (http://bugguide.net/node/view/272011). Accessed May 1, 2016. .
ITIS.
Tylobolus. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tylobolus). Accessed May 1, 2016.


.